PART 5 Ch.XXXIII.11
The Pelasgians or proto Latins (Arimii)
Pelasgians from the northern parts of the
XXXIII. 11. Migrations of the Arimii in
RASCIA In the Middle Ages, the entire territory of upper Mesia, almost the same which the Serbs occupy today, was called Rascia (Thurocz, P. IV. 35; Densusianu, Documente, II. e. 522, 1563), Rasia, Raxia, Rassa, Rasa, terra Racy (Densusianu, Doc. I. 2. 268. 1379; Presbyter Diocleas, c. 9. 15; Philippus de Diversis, Situs Ragusii, p. 131; Anon. Bleae reg. notarius, c. 45; Fejer, Cod. Dipl. Hung. Passim; Wenzel, Cod. Arpad. Cont. T. V. 187, 1298), Racz-orszag (Hungarian).
The age of this geographical name can be followed back to the Roman epoch.
One of the most important cities of upper Mesia, situated on the right
bank of the
After the abandoning of Trajan
Exactly this important region of Aurelian
As a geographical area, Rascia
of the Middle Ages comprised the entire territory of upper Mesia and a part of
In those times there existed a geographical and ethnic difference
between Rascia and
At 1298 the Pope Boniface VIII mentions some differences between
In regard to the population of ancient Rascia, they appear in the
official chronicles and acts of the West, until around the middle of the 19th
century, under the traditional name of: Rascii,
Rasciani, Rasceni, Rassiani, Russeny (Presb.
Diocleas, c. 45; Mon. Hung,
From a historical point of view, we have here the same ethnic name under which figure in Roman times the Raetii or Rhaetii of Switzerland, whose descendants are today the Romancii from the district Graubunden in Tyrol, and from northern Lombardy (Rhetii were considered even by the Romans as an Illyrian people Appianus, De reb. Illyr. c. 29).
The ancient Etruscans
belonged to the same family as the Retii from the
[1. Two manuscripts of Dionysius Periegetus (Ed. Didot, v. 285) prove that the terms Rasciani (Risciani) and Arimani were homogenous and had the same meaning for the ancients: instead of aremaneon Germanon appears the version eristheneon Germanon. Here the epithet eristhenees, with the meaning of valde robusti, indicates by its form that the Germans were also a Riscian people].
From the etymological point of view, the geographical term Rascia is only a simple dialectal form
of Ramscia, as various localities
from the territory of ancient
We find on a Roman inscription from Iglita the patronymic names of Rascanius and Rascania (C. I. L. vol. III. nr. 6203), which indicate a certain Rascanus as originator of this family.
A king of
In regard to the historical origin of this name, a particular importance
is presented by the fact that in the
A significant part of the county Posega of Croatia, the so-called little Valachia, still had in the Middle Ages the particular name of Rascia (Pesty, Az eltunt varm. II. 206-207).
Another Rascia was near the
south-western frontiers of today
This beautiful region of ancient
Various localities of upper Mesia appear with Arimic names even in the Roman epoch.
In Mediterranean Dacia was Romesiana (Tab. Peut.), called in the Itinerary of Antoninus, Remesiana, by Procopius, Rumisiana. In the times of Justinian, the city Remesiana (situated where is today Ak-Palanca) had formed the capital of an important military district Regio Remesiensis, having 29 castles and defensive towers.
Near Serdica (today
Finally, close to ancient Sirmius (Mitroviti), where had been born the emperors Aurelianus, Probus and Gratianus, exists even today a little town called Ruma.
We summarize: The entire territory of upper Mesia presents during the course of the Middle Ages also, the remainders of an ancient Pelasgian population, robust, martial, with simple customs, with superstitions and ante-Christian religious beliefs, crossing the mountains and valleys with their flocks and herds exactly as they had done in archaic times, and living according to certain traditional laws, which were neither Roman, nor Greek, or Slav.
These were the so-called Rasci or Vlachi, diminished by the Romanian wars and later conquered and stifled by the waves of Slav invasions.
RAMA During the Middle
Hecateus, who had lived
70-80 years before Herodotus, mentions in the parts of
A folk tradition from
Near the north-western frontiers of
Eastwards from Sarajevo rises the legendary mountain of Bosnia called Romania Planina, where, as the ancient Serb songs tell us, feasted once the Romanian hero Old Novac, with his son Gruita, and his brother Radivoiu (Gerhards Gesange der Serben, 1877, p. 160).
Another mountain of Bosnia, near Costainita, is called de Romanobreg, and in the southern parts of Montenegro, close to Dulcigno, rises the imposing shape of the mountain Rumia, which in the geography of Vibius Sequester (500 to 700ad) appears under the name Rhamnusium (Riese, Geogr. Lat. min. p. 157). Finally, in the upper parts of Hertegovina, the most beautiful and fertile valley is called even today Rama.
As we see, in prehistoric times, the Arimic tribes had given their name to various mountains, rivers and valleys, where the necessities of their pastoral life had forced them to settle with their houses, corals, huts and flocks and herds.
The shepherd Vlachs of Bosnia and Rascia appear often mentioned in the medieval documents of Ragusa under the name of Vlachi Regis Bossine, Vlachi domini imperatoris (Sclavoniae), and those from Hertegovina, under the name Vlachi de terra Chelmo, and Vlachi Sandali Voivodae, etc (Archiva Ragusei, An. 1361, 1403; Jirecek, Die Wlachen in d. Denkm. V. Ragusa, p. 3 seqq).
The ancient name of the pastoral population of Bosnia and Hertzegovina
seems to have been Rami, Rumi and Armani, as results from the
topographical names of Orgomenae,
Ermenia, Rama, Rumia and Ormos (Constantinus Porphyr., De adm. Imp. c. 31), or Vram in Serb documents, a locality situated eastwards of Trebinie.
This is also confirmed by the Dalmatian chronicler of the 12th
century, Presbiterus Diocleas, who
affirms that during the invasion of the Bulgars, the so-called Morlaci of the mountains of