PART 5    Ch.XXXIII.12

The Pelasgians or proto – Latins (Arimii)

(The Pelasgians from the northern parts of the Danube and the Black Sea)

 

PART 5

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XXXIII. 12. Migrations of the Arimii in Hellada.

 

Various localities of Thessaly, of Hellada proper, and of the Peloponnesus, bear Arimic names even from very remote times.

In the Iliad, Homer mentions a city with the name ‘Ormenion, situated in Thessaly near the high peaks of the mountain Titan (II. 2. 734).

With Hecateus, we find in Thessaly a locality with the Greek form of Eyrumenai (fragm. 111). Pliny speaks about two cities of Thessaly with Arimic names, one Orchomenus, the other Hormenium (lib. IV. 15. 1. 16. 1). And Strabo mentions in Thessaly ‘Ormenion or ‘Orminion (lib. IX. 5. 18; XI. 4. 8), near the Pegasetic gulf, an ‘Armenion on the road between Pherae and Larisa, and a third city with the name ‘Erumnai near the sea (lib. Ix. 5. 22), probably the same as Eyrumenai, from the geography of Hecateus.

Another ‘Orchomenos was in Trojan times in Beotia, situated on the shore of the lake Copais (Homer, Iliad, II. v. 511), founded, as it was said, by a king with the name Orchomenos (Apollonius Rhodius, II. 654. 1093; Apollodorus, Bibl. III. 8. 1 - in antique genealogies Orchomenos appears as a nephew, or grandson of Pelasg). This Orchomenos of Beotia had become in Pelasgian times one of the richest and most famous cities of Hellada.

When Agamemnon sends Ulysses and Ajax to Achilles’ camp, to convince him to take an active part in the war against the Trojans, he answers that he would not forget his anger, even if Agamemnon gave him all the riches of Orchmenos of Beotia, and Thebes of Egypt (Homer, Iliad, IX.v. 381). Apart of the rich in gold Orchomenos of Beotia, Homer also mentions another locality with the name ‘Arma, probably ‘Armene (Armeni) in Pelasgian popular form (Iliad, II. v. 499).

A commander of the citizens of Platea of Beotia, in the battles with Mardonius (479bc), is called ‘Arimnestos (Pausanias, lib. IX. 4. 2; Herodotus, lib. Ix. 72).

A third ancient city with the name Orchomenos is in Arcadia, built and fortified on the top of a mountain (Pausanias, lib. ViII. 3. 8; Apollodorus, Bibl. lib. III. 8. 1; Fragm. Hist. gr. II.475, fr.26). This Orchomenos has with Homer the characteristic epithet polymelos, meaning rich in flocks of sheep (Iliad, II. 605).

Another locality of Arcadia appears under the name Rhamnus (Steph. Byz).

The Pelasgians of Arcadia venerated a Zeus charmon (Pausanias, lib. VIII. 12. 1), probably the same divinity as Jupiter Ruminus of the Romans, and Jupiter armunos of the ancient religion of the Umbrii.

Finally, a forth city called Orchomenos, mentioned by Strabo (lib. IX. 2. 42), was in Eubea.

In Argos, apart from the two famous cyclopean cities, Mycenae and Tirynth, also existed an ancient city situated near the sea, called ‘Ermione, founded, as Pausanias tells us (lib. II. 34. 5; Strabo, lib.II. 6.3), in the mythical times of one so-called ‘Ermion. The entire southern part of this

province was called ‘Ermione, and the gulf of the neighboring sea, cholpos o ‘Ermionichos.

The Epeii, who dwelt in the north-western parts of the Peloponnesus, in the province Elis, were also called ‘Orminai (Steph. Byz. see ‘Yrmine). Homer mentions here the city called ‘Yrmine (Iliad, II. v. 616). In the times of Strabo this locality did not exist anymore, but the neighboring mountains still had the name ‘Ormina and ‘Yrmina (lib. VIII. 3. 10).We also note here that in the eastern parts of the province Elis began the famous mountain ridge called Erymanthus, which separated Arcadia from Achaia.

A brother of old Nestor of Pylos (in Messenia) has the name Chromios (Homer, Iliad, Iv. 295; Odyssey, XI. V. 286).

On the territory of Attica existed the little city called Rhamnus, with the renowned temple of Nemesis, who, as traditions told, had been a daughter of old Oceanos potamos or Istru (Pliny, lib. IV. 11. 2; Pausanias, lib. I. 33. 2-3. In Crete, inhabited in ancient times by Pelasgians, also had existed a city and port with the name Rhamnus (Pliny, IV. 20. 3; Ptolemy, III. 15). Another locality of Attica appears under the name ‘Arma (Steph. Byz.) and ‘Ermos (Suidas).

The forms ‘Ormenion, ‘Orminion, ‘Orminai, ‘Orchomenos, Eyrumenai, ‘Ermione and ‘Yrmine, presented by the historical topography of Hellada, are in fact only simple variations of pronunciation and orthography. In regard to their etymological derivation, they are reduced to the older ethnic names, more correct, of Armeni, Armini, Aromeni, Arumeni and Armiones.

 

After the conquest of the Balkan peninsula, the Turks used only the term of Rum as a particular geographical name for the territory of Hellada (Cantemir, Ist. Imp. ottom. Ed. 1876, p. 101).

We have here in fact only an ancient ethnographic tradition.

The Romans themselves considered the provinces of Hellada as being a land of Latin nations.

For a long time the legates of Greece had to speak in the Roman Senate only in the Latin language; and in 198bc, the commission of organization which was sent to Rome, appeared at the great festivity of the Isthmic games, and proclaimed only in Latin that the Roman Senate and the general T. Quinctius accorded complete freedom to all the peoples which had been subjected previously to king Phillip of Macedonia (Livy, lib. XXXIII. c. 32).

The Greek language had been therefore ignored, and at the same time the political individuality of a Greek state had been also ignored.

 

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